Linux kernel commandline bootup option

In your /boot/grub/grub.cfg kernel bootup setup, there is a line where you can add a lot of kernel option (see the “linux” line below):

Or if you startup your kernel using QEMU, the place where you can add the kernel options are inside the “-append” line (in bold):

qemu-system-x86_64 -m 3048 -net nic -net user,host=,hostfwd=tcp::11398-:22 -display none -serial stdio -no-reboot -numa node,nodeid=0,cpus=0-1 -numa node,nodeid=1,cpus=2-3 -smp sockets=2,cores=2,threads=1 -enable-kvm -usb -usbdevice mouse -usbdevice tablet -soundhw all -hda /home/user/syz4123/wheezy_4.12.img -snapshot -initrd /home/tteikhua/syz4129/initrd -kernel /home/tteikhua/syz4129/bzImage -append “console=ttyS0 slub_debug=FZ vsyscall=native rodata=n oops=panic nmi_watchdog=panic panic_on_warn=1 panic=86400 ftrace_dump_on_oops=orig_cpu earlyprintk=serial net.ifnames=0 biosdevname=0 kvm-intel.nested=1 kvm-intel.unrestricted_guest=1 kvm-intel.vmm_exclusive=1 kvm-intel.fasteoi=1 kvm-intel.ept=1 kvm-intel.flexpriority=1 kvm-intel.vpid=1 kvm-intel.emulate_invalid_guest_state=1 kvm-intel.eptad=1 kvm-intel.enable_shadow_vmcs=1 kvm-intel.pml=1 kvm-intel.enable_apicv=1 root=/dev/sda”

Or you can add it inside the /etc/default/grub file, and modify the “GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT” parameter, and run “update-grub” to modify the /boot/grub/grub.cfg file:

In all these scenario, what are all the available kernel options which you can enable?

In the latest count, there are about 460+ kernel options available (full list is here:

Too many, so what are most useful ones?

Cannot answer myself either. But for debugging:

These seemed to be useful.

In particular, one “slub_debug” is used for debugging a recently discoverd vulnerability (CVE-2017-7533):


The kernel function for handling “slub_debug” (from above) is “setup_slub_debug” (inside mm/slub.c) from where we can read and understand how the option is handled by the kernel:



Leave a Reply

Please log in using one of these methods to post your comment: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )


Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: